BODRUM


Bodrum
 (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbodɾum]) is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient WorldBodrum Castle, built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of Underwater Archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 136,317 in 2012.

Geography

The region includes the municipalities of Bodrum, TurgutreisOrtakentTürkbüküYalıkavakGümüşlük, Bitez, Konacık, Yalı and Mumcular; with many tourist-oriented developments being constructed across the district area.

Etymology

The name Bodrum derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller Castle of St. Peter (see history). The site was formerly known as Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός,[3]TurkishHalikarnas.)

Climate

Bodrum has a Mediterranean climate. A winter average high of 15 °C (59 °F) and in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very sunny spells. Summers are hot and humid and winters are mild and mostly sunny.

Climate data for Bodrum
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
17.6
(63.7)
21.1
(70)
26.0
(78.8)
31.2
(88.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
30.3
(86.5)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
16.5
(61.7)
23.93
(75.08)
Average low °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.0
(46.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.8
(62.2)
12.8
(55)
9.8
(49.6)
15.19
(59.33)
Precipitation mm (inches)134.1
(5.28)
107.9
(4.248)
74.0
(2.913)
39.1
(1.539)
18.4
(0.724)
7.5
(0.295)
1.3
(0.051)
8.5
(0.335)
20.8
(0.819)
40.5
(1.594)
97.7
(3.846)
156.2
(6.15)
706
(27.794)
Avg. rainy days12.311.28.56.93.72.11.51.02.85.38.813.277.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours148.8151.2198.4225285.2318337.9322.4273223.2168139.52,790.6
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]

History

Theatre of Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the Bodrum Castle seen in the background.
See also: Halicarnassus

The first recorded settlers in Bodrum region were the Carians and the harbor area was colonized by Dorian Greeks as of the 7th century BC. The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was the capital city of the satrapy of Caria, the region that had since long constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal port. Its strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed considerable autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as the recently discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, attest to the particular pride its inhabitants had developed.[5] A famous native was Herodotus, the Greek historian (484-420 BC).

Mausolus

Surviving substructures and ruins of theMausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, inHalicarnassus (modern Bodrum.)

Mausolus ruled Caria from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377 to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects Satyros and Pythis, and the four sculptors BryaxisScopasLeochares and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for him. The word "mausoleum" derives from the structure of this tomb. It was a temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a massive base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture remain.

Greek Halicarnassus

Alexander the Great laid siege to the city after his arrival in Carian lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of Caria, captured it after heavy fighting.

Julian of Halicarnassus was bishop in the early 6th century. From the middle of the 6th century BC on, Halicarnassus was governed by the Persians.

Petronium

The Castle of St. Peter was built by the Knights Hospitaller.

Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum as a quarry to build the still impressively standing Bodrum Castle (Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of the late Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I, afterTamerlane had destroyed their previous fortress located in İzmir's inner bay. The castle and its town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum derives.

In 1522, Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle of Saint Peter and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire.

20th century

Marina of Bodrum

Bodrum was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a large community of bilingualCretan Turks, coupled with the conditions of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern Dodecanese until 1935 saved it from utter provincialism.[6] The fact that traditional agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the rather dry peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large landowners. Bodrum has no notable history of political or religious extremism either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form after the 1950s around the writer Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, who had first come here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the town to the point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı ('The Fisherman of Halicarnassus').[7]

Demographics

The population for the town of Bodrum was 35,795 in the 2012 census. The surrounding towns & villages had an additional 100,522, for a total for the province of 136,317.[8]

Economy

Bodrum has an active tourist economy. The town has over 100 plus restaurants.[citation needed] One of the largest marinas in the Aegean contains docking facilities for 500 boats.[citation needed]

Panoramic view of Cennet Koyu (Paradise Bay) in Göltürkbükü, Bodrum.